Most of the world can not function without electricity. A basic particle or a key factor behind electricity is Electric charge. Much phenomena which takes place in our globe depends on Electric charge. One of more recognised phenomena by all human being is lightning that is due to flow of electric charge.
To know the presence of electric charge, keep torn pieces of papers on a table and take a plastic centimeter scale and bring the scale close to a piece of papers. The piece of paper is still with no movement. Now scale is rubbed with woolen cloth and is then brought to near a piece of papers. Now piece of papers are attracted towards the end of the scale.
It is realised that paper and end of the scale have opposite charges. Initially, both paper and scale had same charges (positive charge) so that paper had not been attracted but repelled. After rubbing scale with woolen cloth, scale acquired negative charge. Consequently, it attracted piece of papers which have positve charges. It is concluded that same charges are repelled and opposite charges are attracted.
Electric charge is a basic property of elementary particles of matter. Basically, Atoms have particles of Electron,proton and Neutron. Protons and Neutrons together form nucleus which is central part of a atom.Electrons revolves around nucleus with negative charge. Neutron has neutral charge(zero charge). The charge of matter or atom is an integer multiple of elementary charge e which is approximately equal to 1.602×10−19 coulombs. The proton has a charge of e and electron has a charge of -e. The SI unit of elctric charge is coulombs.